Glossary of Massage Terms (H, I , J, K)

Hemarthrosis – Bleeding into a joint, usually from severe trauma

Hemoglobin – The iron containing pigment that enables red blood cells to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues

Hyperemia -An excess of blood in an area or part of the body

Hyperesthesia – Unusual sensitivity to sensory stimulus, hyper irritability or increased muscular sensitivity to pain.

Hypertonicity– The condition of excess muscle ton.  The tension of a resting muscle is unnecessarily high.

Hypertrophy– An increase in the size of a muscle, or increase or thickening of connective tissue structures, in response to increased stresses.

Hyperventilation – An excessive increase in the rate of breathing, which causes a decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.  The result can be giddiness, cramps, convulsions, lowered blood pressure and anxiety.

Incomplete Protein – Protein that lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.  Examples are grains and vegetables.

Inter/Intra Event Massage – Administered between athletic events such as races.  It has elements of both pre and post event massage techniques

Intermittent Work – Activities or exercise periods performed with rest periods in between.

Intrinsic Muscle Spasm – the prolonged spasms of a muscle in response to the local circulatory and metabolic changes that occur when a muscle spasm becomes self-perpetuating, regardless of whether the primary lesion that caused the initial guarding is still irritable.

Isokeinetic Exercise – Contraction of a muscle during which the force exerted while the muscle shortens is maximal.

Isometric Exercise – A contraction of a muscle when no joint movement or muscle position change occurs. The contraction can be in any position as long as there is no change in the position.

Isotonic Contraction – A concentric or eccentric contraction of a muscle.  A muscle contraction performed with movement.

Isotonic Exercise -Contraction of a muscle during which the force of resistance to the movement remains constant throughout the range of motion.

Joint Dysfunction – Mechanical loss of normal joint play in synovial joints.  Commonly causes loss of function and pain.  Precipitating factors may be joint trauma, immobilization, disuse, aging or serious pathological condition.

Kneading (Pettrissage)- Rhythmic lifting rolling or squeezing, pulling muscle away from underlying or adjacent muscle,commonly applied with hand, thumbs, thumb and finger or forearm.

Lactacid oxygen debt – the oxygen necessary after strenuous exercise to remove lactic acid from the blood.

Lactic Acid– Formed in exercising muscles by the breakdown of glycogen (glycolosis).

latent Trigger point– A focus of hyper irritability in a muscle or its fascia that is not actively painful. The tissue in this area often feels dense and fibrous. The sensation the client reports feeling is usually numbness.  After deep tissue massage or triggerpoint therapy, the area will usually be tender to pressure and may refer pain.

lesion – A circumscribed area of pathologically altered tissue.