Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy defined – the study of the structure of the body and the relationship between structures

Physiology defined – study of function of body parts

Levels of structural organization:
Atoms – Smallest building block of matter made up of protons, electrons and neutrons. Two or more atoms combine to form molecules which are the building block of body structures. Some examples are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Chemicals – Subatomic particles, atoms and molecules form elements which essential for maintaining life
Cellular – basic structural and functional units are called cells of an organism (muscle cells, nerve cells, blood cells)
Tissues – A group of similar cells that have a similar origin in the embryo and perform specific functions.  The four basic tissue types are epithelium, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nerve tissue.
Organs – Composed of two or more different tissues and have specific functions and recognizable shape.  Examples: brain, stomach, liver.
System – Related organs that have a common function like the digestive system that is composed of the mouth, salivary glands, throat, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gall bladder and pancreas.  The systems are integumentary, skeletal, nervous, muscular, endocrine, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.

Organism – Living individual

  • Chemistry: present and discuss briefly atoms, elements, molecules, ion, compounds, organic compound, inorganic compound.
  • Define and discuss each organ system by providing an overview of its organs and its basic function.
    Integumentary system
    Skeletal system
    Muscular system
    Nervous system
    Endocrine system
    Cardiovascular system
    Lymphatic system
    Respiratory system
    Digestive system
    Urinary system
    Reproductive system


Define homeostatic control mechanisms including negative and positive feedback mechanisms.

Origin’s of terms

Greek or Roman
Word elements: Define the term word elements.

Common Prefixs, suffix, and root words.

Word elements are used to form words.

Methods for breaking down unknown words

Medical dictionary