Learning the muscles of the body is one of the basic courses in massage school. After you learn the basics of how the cells and how the fibers work and how they form muscles and groups of muscles you can start putting it all together.
You also need to know the basics of the skeletal system and how the bones and joints work to form levers that allow the movement to happen. The joints of the body are designed for range of motion rather than strength. Muscles attach near the joint and the muscles create a pulley system. Ligaments provide stability and act to guide movement and also limit movement. Muscle tension will affect the range of motion. Hypertonic muscles with abnormal tone and hypotonic muscles lacking tone, will influence motion. There are various types of movement that the bones, joints and muscles create.
So learning where the muscles attach to the bones can help you in learning how muscles move the body. I have created a series of charts to help you learn the names of the muscles, their origin and insertions and what movement they are involved in.