1800’s-Reiki is believed to date back to early Tibetan healing practices. Discovered in the 1800’s by a Japanese philosopher and Christian seminary educator, Dr. Mikao Usui
1804 – The Elements of Kellgrens’ Manual Therapy by James Cryax reports that First historical record of Per Henrik Lings (1776- 1839) was in 1804.
THE ELEMENTS OF KELLGREN’S MANUAL TREATMENT EDGAR F. CYEIAX M.D.Edmburgh, 1001 ; Gymnastic Director, StocMiolm, 1899 NEW YORK WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY Google Books –– PDF, text, and other versions Archive.org (PDF)
“In that year Ling was back in Sweden, and in the town of Lund was established as an instructor in the arts of fencing and gymnastics. While on the Continent he had been compelled in consequence of pecuniary difficulties to undergo many hardships and privations, resulting in serious damage to his health ; at the time already referred to his constitution was much impaired, and he was a constant martyr to rheumatism. Bodily ailments did not, however, keep him from pursuing an active life, and his reputation as a master of fencing and gymnastics developed into considerable fame. The movements and exercise necessitated by his daily work soon proved of great benefit to his physical condition, and shortly after his appointment in 1805 as fencing master to the University of Lund, Ling found that his rheumatism had disappeared, and that he had regained his former strength and vigour. These facts turned his thoughts in a new direction. What had been of benefit to himself might also be of benefit to others, and he came to the conclusion that it ought to be possible to devise various movements with different physiological effects for the treatment of various ailments. He likewise argued that a further series of movements could be contrived which would tend not only to keep healthy persons in that condition, but also to strengthen them by developing their bodies equally in all directions.” ~Elements of Kellgrens’ Manual Therapy by James Cryax
1808 – JOHN BARCLAY (10 December 1758 – 21 August 1826) WROTE “The Muscular Motion of the Human Body (Google Books) “in which he relates a case of muscular contraction cured by percussion alone. In 1804, Barclay was formally recognized as a lecturer on anatomy and surgery by the Edinburgh College of Surgeons, and in 1806 he became a fellow of the Edinburgh College of Physicians
1813– Per Henrik Ling formed the Royal Gymnastic Central Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. His students carried on his work after his death. Per Ling is NOT the father/creator of Swedish Massage or of the Swedish Movement Cure.
On Per Henrik Ling, According to Douglas Graham in his Treatise on Massage.:
Some regarded him as the inventor of this system of treating certain maladies, while others considered that he only made rational that which had been in use for many centuries amongst the Chinese and other eastern nations. · The latter is doubtless the more correct views, for one of his disciples states that Ling thought, like his predecessors, not of merely imitating the gymnastic treatment of the ancients, but he aimed at its reformation and improvement. But the former view served a useful purpose in stirring up the critics and opponents of Ling’s method who adduced testimony to show that the method of Ling is that of the Brahmins of India ; is that of the Egyptian priests ; is that of Asclepiades, of Pythagoras, and of Herodicus; is that of which Hippocrates, Celsus, Galen, Rufus of Ephesus and other physicians, Greek and Roman, have preserved fragments for and that all the movements which Ling has indicated are described in an ancient book of the Chinese called the Cong Fou of the Tao- Ssé.
1819 – Illustrations of the power of compression and percussion in the cure of rheumatism, gout, and debility of the extremities, and in promoting health and longevity by Balfour, William. Archive.org
“Dr. Balfour claimed for him self the originality accredited to Professor Grosvenor by his friends — that of discovering a new method of treatment with out inquiring if there were any previous data to start from.”
The means adapted to these ends—the means of promoting circulation, and of preserving health to the diseased, the infirm, and the aged, are percussion and compression. By the former, the circulation is promoted, not only in parts affected with disease, but in the whole body; by the latter, vessels weakened by disease, or by age, are supported. This is not a speculative opinion, which may he right or wrong. It can he put to the test of experience by man, woman, or child, and its truth appreciated in five minutes. If a person sits in a cold room till his feet and legs become cold and benumbed, and a chilliness pervades the whole surface of the body, the application of percussion will produce a glow of warmth over all the parts, equal to that produced by walking. When the blood has been repelled by cold from the surface of the body to the internal parts, it can he brought hack again to the surface by percussion: For wherever a stimulus is applied, to that part there is an afflux of blood; so that the equability of the circulation may be preserved in the sedentary, the diseased, the infirm, and the aged, in a degree highly conducive to health and longevity.
1825 – A Full Account of the System of Friction As Adopted and Pursued with the Greatest Success in Cases of Contracted Joints and Lameness, from Various CausesBy John Grosvenor, William Cleoburey. Link to Google Books
The friction was at first continued for one hour daily, (more or less, as the case would admit) and gradually increased till the patient could bear it to be rubbed an hour at a time three hours in the day, observing always to rub by the watch.
A Practical Treatise on Massage by Douglas Graham states:
A Practical Treatise on Massage Its History, Mode of Application, and Effects, Indications and Contra-indications; with Results in Over Fourteen Hundred CasesBy Douglas Graham · 1884 Google Books)
“ In the latter period of his practice, Mr. Grosvenor rendered himself celebrated throughout the kingdom by the application of friction to lameness or imperfections of motion arising from stiff or diseased joints. He had first used it with success in a complaint of his own, a morbid affection of the knee, and by degrees its efficacy was so acknowledged that he was visited by patients from the most distant parts, of the highest rank and respectability, among others by Mr. Hey, the able surgeon of Leeds. Those who were benefited by the process pursued under his own immediate superintendence in cases of this sort, and from total inability have been restored to a free use of their limbs, were best able to attest his merits. That he was scarcely in any instance known to fail, was perhaps attributable to the circumstance that he used his utmost efforts to dissuade from coming to Oxford every one of whose case, from previous communications, he entertained any doubt. Possessed at this time of affluence, he became very indifferent about business, and at a time of life when he was still capable of active exertions and his strength was but little impaired, he began to contract his practice. For the last ten years of his life he had wholly given up his profession , except in the instances of his patients requiring friction .” Mr. Grosvenor considered friction highly improper in all cases of inflammation , in scrofulous cases tending to suppuration, in cases of inflammatory gout and rheumatism, and useless in cases of true anchylosis. The cases in which he found this remedy most serviceable were contractions of the joints attended with languid circulation and thickening of the ligaments, in those cases in which there is too great secretion of the synovial fluid in the joints, after wounds in ligamentous, tendinous, or muscular parts when the function of the limb is impaired, in cases of paralysis, in cases of chorea combined with attention to the system , after violent strains of the joints , in incipient cases of white swelling, after fractures of the articulating extremities of the joints when stiffness remains after union, in cases of dislocation of the joint when the motion is impaired some time after reduction, and in weakly people where the circulation is languid. The observations of Mr. Grosvenor have been, in the main, confirmed by others, most of whom evidently consider their own experience unique and unprecedented .
1837 – Ling’s disciple, M. LeRon brought Movement Cure to Russia, St. Petersburg.
1839-1909 – Johann Mezger. Holland. Brought medical massage to scientific community. Started using the terms effleurage, petrissage and tapotement.
The too great importance attached at present to massage is due, however, not to the direct influence of Swedish gymnastics, but originates in France, and it has found in Dr. J. Mezger, of Amsterdam, an exceptionally
expert advocate. Incited by his success. Professor Mosengeil’ published a detailed description of the manipulations which are performed in this process. These latter are divided into four classes: effleurage, massage a friction, petrissage, and tapotement. The parts of the body to be massaged must be so situated as to be within reach of manual operation ;a deeply seated part, such as the hip-joint for instance, cannot be effectually massaged. The part must be first washed with cold water, then the masseur anoints his hands with any substance that facilitates their gliding easily over the surface of the skin. Such substances are : olive oil, animal fat, especially in the form of the universally known cold cream, vaseline, black soap, or a special liniment, which is more often used in France, and which consists of—
Camphor . . .10 parts
Laudanum . . . 10
Oil . . . . 60 „
If the part to be operated upon be very hairy it must be shaved, otherwise even with mild massage severe pains and possibly inflammation may ensue. The rubber begins with efleurage—i.e. with centripetal strokes which are conducted with the full surface of each hand alternately over the desired part of the body. The strokings, at first slight, are gradually increased to a considerable strength and then gradually diminished. If the part to be operated upon is too small to permit the use of the whole hand, only the tips of the fingers are employed. By means of these strokings, abnormal collections of fluid, such as extravasations of blood or exudations, spread over a larger expanse which is favourable to their more rapid absorption, or else they are pressed inwards directly into the lymphatic vessels and thus driven away from the diseased parts. Stroking towards the periphery should only be performed in exceptional cases, because they act in an opposite direction to the lymph stream, but in the case of considerable fluid collections they have at times this advantage, that they procure towards the periphery a greater surface for absorption. Nevertheless, one must not subject every inflammatory swelling to effleurage, since an exudation charged with infectious matters may easily produce inflammation and suppuration in the neighbouring parts by its extension. Massage is entirely out of the question in all cases of venous inflammation, since by its employment detached pieces of thrombus or softened masses ofdetritus might be conveyed into the circulation, where they would produce the most serious disturbances. Soft tissue growths, especially such as the well-known fungous granulations, may be crushed by effleurage, and thus their absorption rendered more easy. After the rubbing has been continued for a long time the skin reddens, the patient experiences a decided feeling of warmth, and sometimes the temperature of the part is raised, as may be shown by the use of a thermometer, a condition which only disappears gradually after the lapse of some hours. In many cases the pain produced at the commencement of the massage is very considerable, but by gradual increase in the strength with which the movements are performed the sensibility gradually declines. In the massage ä friction the finger-tips of one hand work with energetic elliptical rubbings proceeding from the periphery towards the centre, whilst the finger-tips of the other hand follow with a stroking movement. The parts which the fingers of the first hand press and pound the fingers of the other hand rub over afterwards with a circular movement. A considerable degree of dexterity and practice is necessary to perform this operation properly, as the
fingers of each hand have to be moved differently. This is especially difficult when the left hand does the rubbings while the right follows with a stroking movement. Petrissage is a thorough kneading of the parts. A fold of the affected tissues (the skin and especially the muscles) is raised between the thumb and the four other fingers of each hand, and whilst this fold is strongly pressed, both hands work together in an opposite direction to the longitudinal axis of the limb, and act thus slowly towards the centre of the body. Tapottement consists in small blows which are bestowed upon the affected part either by the relaxed finger or by a special hammering apparatus made of indiarubber, wood, or whalebone. Besides these there are the chopping and sawing movements, which are performed with the ulnar edge of the hand, and the slappings with the entire hand.
General orthopædics, gymnastics and massage by Busch, F. (Friedrich), 1844-1914; Ziemssen, H. von (Hugo), 1829-1902; Winternitz, W; Smith, E. Noble, (Eldred Noble), 1847-1906; Elsner, F. W. Archive.org
Douglas Graham, MD on Metger:
Dr. Mezger, of Amsterdam , treated the (then ) Danish crown prince successfully for a chronic joint trouble by means of massage, which he used in a manner somewhat peculiar to himself and in accordance with the teachings of physiology and pathological anatomy. When the prince got well, he sent a young physician to Amsterdam to study Dr. Mezger’s method of applying massage, and soon after many old as well as young physicians visited the clinic of Mezger and they all agreed that the so-called massage used in Mezger’s manner and according to the indications which a very large experience enabled him to point out, is a most worthy agent in various affections of the joints, besides in inflammations and neuroses. They considered that credit was due to Mezger for having improved massage in a physiological manner, and for having brought it to be acknowledged as a highly valuable method.
A Practical Treatise on Massage Its History, Mode of Application, and Effects, Indications and Contra-indications; with Results in Over Fourteen Hundred CasesBy Douglas Graham · 1884 Google Books)
According to A Practical Treatise on Massage Its History, Mode of Application, and Effects, Indications and Contra-indications; with Results in Over Fourteen Hundred CasesBy Douglas Graham · 1884 Google Books)
Gazette des Hôpitaux for 1839 makes known to us that in the island of Tonga, Oceanica, when a person is fatigued from walking or other exercise, he lies down and some of the natives practise divers operations upon him , known under the name of Toogi Toogi, Mili or Fota. The first of these words expresses the action of striking constantly and softly with the fist; the second that of rubbing with the palm of the hand ; the third that of pressing and squeezing the tissues between the fingers and the thumb. These operations are ordinarily done by females; and they contribute to diminish fatigue and pain, besides producing an agreeable effect which disposes to sleep.. When they practise them with the intention of diminishing fatigue alone, the arms and legs are worked upon ; but when there is pain in some place, it is the part affected or the surrounding parts where the operations are applied . In headache the skin over the frontal region and also that over the cranium is submitted to Fota, and often with success. Sometimes in cases of fatigue they make use of a process which differs from the proceeding ordinarily employed ;
three or four little children tread under their feet the whole body
of the patient. The Turks, Egyptians, and Africans, according to Ardonin, use similar procedures ; they rub and press with the fingers, and they knead all parts of the body. With the Russians, flagellation and friction by means of a bundle of birch twigs are resorted to after the subject has been well parboiled in a vaporbath. A pailful of cold water is then dashed over him from head to foot, the effect of which is described as electrifying. After this he plunges into the snow, and thus tempers himself like steel to indure with impunity the rigorous climate. The
Siberians and Laplanders also indulge in these luxuries.
1850s– scientific massage therapy was introduced in the United States by two New York physicians, brothers George and Charles Taylor, who had studied in Sweden.
1856 – Mathias Roth, English physician, taught Charles Fayette Taylor and George Henry Taylor who brought massage to the US
1852-1943 – John Harvey Kellogg, Battle Creek Sanitarium used massage and hydrotherapy. Published magazine called “Good Health”
1850s– Karl von Reichenbach discovered kerosene and paraffin
1858 – Bindgewebs term – The term itself was first mentioned by Johannes Peter Müller (14 July 1801 – 28 April 1858) was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist according to Wikipedia. Later became Connective Tissue Massage created by Emily Dicke.
1859 – Elleaume : Du massage dans l’entorse. Gaz. des Hôpitaux , No. 151
1859 – “ The Cure of Disease by Manipulation , commonly called Medical Rubbing. Pamphlet written by Mr. John Beveridge, son of Mr. Beveridge of Edinburgh.
1863 – According to Douglas Graham in A Practical Treatise on Massage Its History, Mode of Application, and Effects, Indications and Contra-indications; with Results in Over Fourteen Hundred CasesBy Douglas Graham · 1884 Google Books)
Schmidt’s Jahrbücher: “ It is but recently that massage has gained an extensive scientific consideration, since it has passed out of the hands of rough and ignorant empirics into those of educated physicians ; and upon the result of recent scientific investigations it has been cultivated
into an improved therapeutical system , and has won for itself in
its entirety the merit of having become a special branch of the
art of medicine. ”
1866 –The Anatriptic art – By Walter Johnson (PDF) Termed Anatripsis by Hippocrates, Triptis by Galen, Frictio by Celsius, Manipulation by Beveridge, and Medical Rubbing in ordinary language, from the earliest times to the present day.
The processes of Friction and Unction are broadly distinguished by Celsus, who states that the latter is advantageous in many cases in which the former is quite inadmissible. And this distinction is indeed useful for medical purposes, though it is true that there can be no unction (which is defined to be the rubbing in of greasy substances) without friction of some sort ; while friction was understood by ancient medical writers to be usually performed by the aid of oil or fat. Friction , therefore , might also be termed unction. In the operation of friction , however, the greasy substance is used merely to keep the skin from chafing ; but in unction no more friction is employed than is necessary to apply the oil. Friction may be extremely gentle or extremely rough — may be used for a few minutes, or for hours continuously ; but the friction employed in unction is always gentle , and generally of short duration . But as I said before, this is a medical distinction —a distinction which naturally would very commonly be disregarded in ordinary language. The practice of friction and unction , in other words rubbing of the body with greasy substances, had its origin in ante-historical ages, for the oldest writers whose works are in our hands speak of the custom as one in daily use . It was employed sometimes as a remedy, sometimes as a hygienic mean, sometimes as a luxury, and sometimes it had a symbolic religious sense . In the religious rite, the oil was usually poured over the body , and for the most part over the head. But it is my intention here to disregard unction proper, in all its applications, and to speak of that kind of unction only which owes the main part of its virtue to the accompanying friction .
1873 – William H Monroe, MD. Monroes’s Philosophy of Cures. (Google Books) Case studies and testimonials.
What the nerves want is not less action , but healthy action. Disentangle those fibres that are knit together, disturbing circulation, which is impeded in its flow , causing suffusion in some parts, with a lack in others , and the cause of the nervous irritation will be removed, nervous harmony will be restored, the blood will flow freely and equally , and sleep and relief from pain will come as if by magic.
1870 – According to Douglas Graham in A Practical Treatise on Massage Its History, Mode of Application, and Effects, Indications and Contra-indications; with Results in Over Fourteen Hundred CasesBy Douglas Graham · 1884 Google Books)
Dr. N. B. Emerson gave a very interesting account of the lomi- lomi of the Sandwich Islanders. He describes it as a luxurious and healthful form of passive motion which the Hawaiians bestow upon each other as an act of kindness and their crowning act of generous hospitality to a well -behaved stranger. When foot- sore and weary in every muscle so that no position affords rest, and sleep cannot be obtained , it relieves the stiffness, lameness, and soreness and soothes to sleep, so that unpleasant effects of excessive exercise are not felt next day; but in their stead a suppleness of muscle and ease of joint entirely unwonted . Moreover, the lomi- lomi is capable of appeasing and satisfying that muscular sense of ennui which results from a craving for active physical exercise. The Hawaiians have an appreciation of the physiological wants of the wearied system which Dr. Emerson thinks it would be well for the people of other civilized nations to imitate. They have various ways of administering the lomi- lomi. When one is about to receive it he lies down upon a mat; and he is immediately taken in hand by the artist ( as Dr. Emerson calls the person who lomi- lomies) generally an elderly and experienced man or woman. The process is spoken of as being neither that of kneading, squeezing, nor rubbing, but now like one, and now like the other. Those skilled in the art come to acquire a kind of tact that enables them to graduate the touch and force to the wants of different cases. The natives are such firm believers in it that they sometimes defeat the ends of the surgeon, who would secure perfect rest for fractures, by untimely manipulations. The Hawaiians are a race of swimmers and to a foreigner they seem amphibious. When wrecked they sometimes swim long distances, and if one of their number becomes exhausted they sustain him in the water and lomi- lomi him at the same time. Refreshed by this they all proceed on their watery way together.
The people of the Sandwich Islands are of normal stature, strength , and size ; but the chiefs are so much larger, handsomer, and more magnificent in muscular development that foreigners would think they belonged to a superior conquering race did they not know otherwise. The chiefs are about twenty – five per cent larger than the subjects. The only way in which Dr. Emerson can account for this is that they are better and more abundantly fed, and have themselves constantly lomi-lomied. How much of the virtues of the lomi- lomi are due to the principles of animal magnetism, Dr. Emerson leaves to those to determine who are versed in the matter. Who are they ?
1874 – book – Northern California, Oregon and the Sandwich Islands talks about Lomi-Lomi. Gutenberg Project
“ Wherever you stop for lunch or for the night, if there are native people near, you will be greatly refreshed by the application of lomi-lomi. Almost everywhere you will find some one skilled in this peculiar and , to tired muscles, delightful and refreshing treatment. To be lomi-lomied
you lie down upon a mat, or undress for the night. The less clothing you have on, the more perfectly the operation can be performed. To you thereupon comes a stout native with soft, fleshy hands, but a strong grip, and beginning with your head and working down slowly over the whole body, seizes and squeezes with a quite peculiar art every tired muscle, working and kneading with indefatigable patience, until in half an hour, whereas you were weary and worn out, you find yourself fresh, all soreness and weariness absolutely and entirely gone, and mind and body soothed to a healthful and refreshing sleep. The lomi- lomi is used not only by the natives, but among almost, all the foreign residents ; and not merely to procure relief from weariness consequent on over-exertion, but to cure headaches, to relieve the aching of neuralgic and rheumatic pains, and by the luxurious as one of the pleasures of life. I have known it to relieve violent headache in a very short time. The chiefs keep
skilful lomi- lomi men and women in their retinues, and the
late king who was for some years too stout to take exercise, and
yet was a gross feeder, had himself lomi- lomied after every meal
as a means of helping his digestion . It is a device for relieving
pain and weariness which seems to have no injurious reaction
and no draw- back but one-it is said to fatten the subjects of it.”
1875 – Rest in the Treatment of Nervous Disease, Séguin’s Series of American Clinical Lectures,” Vol. I., No. iv. by Dr S. Weir Mitchell (Wright State University PDF)
1877 – book: FAT AND BLOOD: AN ESSAY ON THE TREATMENT OF CERTAIN FORMS OF NEURASTHENIA AND HYSTERIA. by Dr.S. Weir Mitchell, of Philadelphia. Archive.org or Project Gutenberg. Very specific massage method provided as part of his “Rest Cure”
The methods comprise an original combination of previous well -known agencies: namely, seclusion ,rest, and excessive feeding made available by rapid nutritive changes caused by the systematic use of massage and electricity.
The two aids which by degrees I learned to call upon with confidence to enable me to use rest without doing harm are massage and electricity. We have first to deal with massage, and I give some care to the description of details, because even now it is imperfectly understood in this country, and because I wish to emphasize some facts about it which are not well known, I think, on either side of the Atlantic.
Massage in some form has long been in use in the East, and is well known as the lommi-lommi of the slothful inhabitants of the Sandwich Islands. In Japan it is reserved as an occupation for the blind, whose delicate sense of feeling might, I should think, very well fit them for this task. It is, however, in these countries less used in disease than as the luxury of the rich; nor can I find in the few books on the subject that it has been resorted to habitually as a tonic in Europe, or otherwise than as a means of treating local disorders.
Anne Stiles, “The Rest Cure, 1873-1925”
This essay discusses the rest cure, a popular treatment for nervous illness pioneered by Philadelphia neurologist Silas Weir Mitchell in the 1860s and ‘70s. Emphasis will be placed on the spread of the cure to Britain and the role of the rest cure in literature.
In her autobiography, The Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1935), Gilman describes her experiences as follows:
I was put to bed, and kept there. I was fed, bathed, rubbed, and responded with the vigorous body of twenty-six. As far as he could see there was nothing the matter with me, so after a month of this agreeable treatment he sent me home with this prescription:
“Live as domestic a life as possible. Have your child with you all the time. . . . Lie down an hour after each meal. Have but two hours’ intellectual life a day. And never touch pen, brush, or pencil as long as you live.” (96)
1879 – Douglas Graham-described lomi lomi and wrote a book called the “History of massage”(which I have not been able to find online). Is often said to have been first to use massage in USA.
1880 – Mary Putnam Jacobi and Victoria A White in New York City. Medical Doctors and professors who researched the benefits of massage and ice packs in the management of anemia.
1884 – Professor Charcot. French Physician taught Sigmund Freud. Though French doctors should use massage more.
1884 – Massage Scandals in Europe. Physicians became skeptical of claims made by massage therapist and accused practitioners of stealing patients.
1884 – Douglas Graham, MD (1848-1928) writes first edition of Treatise on Massage. (Google books) which also gives more insights on the history of massage.
1887 – Treatment By Massage by Walter Mendelson. www.archive.org
Douglas Graham, MD. Wrote the first case studies on massage therapy. His training in manual therapy came from William H. Monroe (his father-in-law) who created a treatment method he called the nervous adjustment cure.
1889 – Head Zones discovered. after by Sir Henry Head (1861–1940) who described them in 1889. Today Head zones are thought to coincide to a large extent with dermatomes , that is, areas of skin innervated by one and the same spinal nerve. Later led to Connective Tissue Massage or Bindgewebs Massage.
1893 – Dr. Harry Kellgren, (taught James Cyriax) for most useful aid in many directions, including the classification and description of shakings, vibrations, and frictions.
1894 – Society of Trained Masseuses formed in Britain. Set up study of massage along with prerequisites for education and criteria for school recognition.
1895 – Sigmund Freud. Used Massage Therapy to treat hysteria. Studies in Hysteria. Postulated that what we did not or will not confront in our lives would be buried in the body in the unconscious mind.
1895 – The practice of massage; its physiological effects and therapeutic uses: by Eccles, Arthur Symons, 1855-1900 (Archive.org PDF)
1895 -Harvey Kellogg -“The Art of Massage” -Full text available online at
The Meridian Institute.
1896 – Handbook of Massage By Gustaf Mauritz Norström
1898 – Recent Developments in Massage ; HISTORICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL. Second Edition. by Douglas Graham Google Books PDF supplement to Treatise on Massage (second edition) which was issued in 1890.
“It needs no elaborate demonstration to convince us that massage, by increasing the flow of blood and of lymph, thus causes to be brought a more abundant supply of nourishing material to the parts massed, at the same time removing waste products; that it brings food to the tissues and relieves them of their constipation; that it adds fresh fuel to the fire while removing the ashes, at one and the same time in creasing the functions of the circulation as marketman and as scavenger.” ~ Douglas Graham, MD 1890
1899 – Sir William Bennet- Started a massage department at St. George’s Hospital in London.
1899 – THE ELEMENTS OF KELLGREN’S MANUAL TREATMENT EDGAR F. CYEIAX M.D.Edmburgh, 1001 ; Gymnastic Director, StocMiolm, 1899 NEW YORK WILLIAM WOOD AND COMPANY Google Books –– PDF, text, and other versions Archive.org (PDF)