Personal Note: Vertigo is why I created this website and my many others. It has been such an incapacitating ordeal making it difficult to give massage at many times. I have tried just about everything under the sun and still it persists and comes and goes.
Predisposing factors that contribute to the occurrence of strains:
overuse, fatigue, muscular imbalances, muscle stiffness, inadequate warm-up before an activity
Levels of severity:determined by passive range of motion assessment for sprains, resisted range of motion for strainsvery difficult to access because of inflammationassessment is best done by a physician.this information is provided so you know what is possible
Sprains: tears in ligaments
1-50% tear of ligament fibers and minimal muscle tissue damage
no loss of function
joint is stable and painful
50-99% tear of the ligament and joint capsule
joint hypermobile and unstable
decrease in tensile strength of ligament
swelling, bruising, bleeding
100% tear of ligament
no joint end feel present
usually no specific pain, but compensational pain
needs physician attention
Strains: tears in muscles and tendons
1-10% partial tear of fibers
little or no loss of function
can hold against resistance with pain
10-50% fiber tear
painful, but can hold against resistance
as it approaches 50% less ability to hold against resistance
50-99% fiber tear
can’t hold against resistance
may hold against gravity
pain, edema, swelling and muscle guarding
100% fiber tear
usually heard snap at time of injury
no resistance possible
pain may be present at site
compensational pain present
Needs physicians attention immediately
Causes: gradual or trauma: increased load on the muscle/ligament that is not strong enough to do hold the weight. over use, overextended muscles/ligaments, improper warm up before activity,
Treatments:treat according to stage of inflammationtreat according to severity of injuryice massageTriggerpointMyofascial releasebegin massage treatment as soon as possible to reduce adhesion formation especially with muscular strains. General guidelines: Acute stage: lymph drainage, ice massage, passive range of motion, Subacute stage: cross fiber friction, muscle energy or strain/counterstrain techniques, add strengthening as inflammation decreases, trigger point therapy, myofascial release Chronic stage: cross fiber friction for ligaments, cross fiber friction of muscles,
Cautions:Traction may aggravate if it over-stretches muscles.Stretching may over-stretch and re-injure muscles.Repeated injury to ligaments can cause the ligament to become looser and more prone to re-injury.Be sure you are trained in treating acute injuries. Other therapies: acupuncture, prolotherapy for ligaments, chiropractic, naturopathic (provides nutritional support needed for proper healing and functioning)
Massage for Breast Cancer to help prevent and support patients through breast cancer surgeries, reconstruction and recovery.
Breast massage continues to be a very controversial massage technique in the US while other countries have accepted it and use it to help with various conditions such as recovery from Breast Cancer. Public perception of massage still is challenging especially concerning breast massage.
Be sure to check the laws in your state regarding breast massage.
(sometimes referred to as degenerative joint disease)
Other types of arthritis: Rheumatoid, spondylosis, gout, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, infectious arthritis, kawasaki syndrome.
Causes: improper posture that causes extra stress to joints, injuries resulting in toxic build up in joints, leading to wearing away of the cartilage that covers the ends of the bones. Dehydration may be a factor, as may nutritional deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, improper digestion, increased intake of protein, phosphorus. Possible genetic predisposition. Bacterial, viral or fungal infection of joint. Calcium metabolism may be inefficient. (caffeine, sugar, phosphorus deplete levels of calcium from bones)
Signs/Symptoms: stiffness usually worse in the morning or after periods of inactivity; hypertonic muscles or weakness due to rigidity of joints; cartilage damage from injuries
Treatment Goals: decrease pressure/tension on joint; decrease pain; increase range of motion, increase circulation for removal of toxins. Techniques: traction, vibration, hydrotherapy (heat), moderate exercise to increase synovial fluid in joints, gentle stretching and gymnastics ok.
“Children with mild to moderate juvenile rheumatoid arthritis were massaged by their parents 15 minutes a day for 30 days (and a control group engaged in relaxation therapy). The children’s anxiety and stress hormone (cortisol) levels were immediately decreased by the massage, and over the 30-day period their pain decreased on self-reports, parent reports, and their physician’s reports.
Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Seligman, S., Krasnegor, J. & Sunshine, W. (1997). Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Benefits from massage therapy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 607-617.”
Tendonitis Definition: inflammation of a tendon or musculotendinous junction Causes: overuse, repetitive stress, improper healing, or tearing from sustained overloading of muscle
Signs/Symptoms: pain, persistent pain worse at night, pain referral, pain worse after use, muscle weakness, inflammation, limited ROM; usually occurs where the tendon attaches to the bone or where the muscle attaches to the tendon or in the tendon.
Common areas: rotator cuff tendonitis, infraspinatus tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, shin splints Indications: Massage as per your level of training. Trigger point treatments, relieve inflammation, re-educate movement. Slow to heal because of lack of vascularity. Contraindications: Cortisone shots may be administered; Use caution
Tenosynovitis Definition: inflammation of the tendon sheath – the gliding surface of the tendon and surrounding sheath. Causes: overuse, repetitive motion, repetitive strain, improper posture, misalignment Signs/Symptoms: pain, inflammation, stiffness Indications: Massage as per your level of training; Reduce inflammation, relieve trigger points, realign problem area
Contraindications: None; Check for medications – steroids may be used in treatment.
Trigeminal Neuralgia Definition: compression of fifth cranial nerve; may cause degeneration of nerve Causes: vertebral misalignment, cranial misalignment, TMJ Signs/Symptoms: pain in face area Indications: Massage for pain reduction, realign problem areas Contraindications: None. Refer to appropriate health care provider.
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Definition: compression of brachial nerve plexus; C8-T1; may also be referred to as Brachial Plexus syndrome which may involve C5-C8.
Causes: tightness in pectoral muscles, intercostals, muscles around clavicle, upper back, neck; misalignment in one or all or these areas; disc protrusion or herniation, fibromyalgia, degenerative changes in the spine causing nerve impingement, inter-scalene triangle impingement, fibrositis of the cervical and shoulder area, Signs/Symptoms: pain in arm, shoulder, hand, forearm; cold hands and fingers due to compression of axillary artery Indications: Massage; realignment and release compression Contraindications: none; Refer to appropriate health care practitioner; Have clear diagnosis to rule out neuritis.
Thrombophlebitis Definition: inflammation of a vein Causes: thrombus(blood clot) from trauma, environmental allergies, lack of exercise and movement, standing for long periods of time, aging, poor circulation, abnormal clotting Signs/Symptoms: swelling, pain, discoloration of the skin (bluish) Indications: massage above area Contraindications: Do not work directly on the area involved
Torticollis Definition: wry neck, asymmetry in the strength or function of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle causing rotation of the head to one side with a tilt in another direction (lateral, forward or backwards) Causes: bad sleeping position, stress, TMJ, vertebral misalignment, spasm in SCM, emotional trauma, Signs/Symptoms: pain, lack of rotation of the neck Indications: massage to relieve muscle contraction, realign problem areas, lengthen SCM Contraindications: none; Refer to appropriate health care practitioner.
Tuberculosis Definition: infectious disease of the lungs Causes: bacterial
Signs/Symptoms: flulike symptoms, cough, chest pain, fever, night sweats, shortness of breath Indications:N/A Contraindications: Refer to Physician; Highly contagious
Varicose Veins Definition: abnormally enlarged veins Causes: improper functioning of the valves in the veins, weakened linings of the wall of the vein, injury, trauma, vitamin C deficiency, overweight, lack of exercise, pregnancy Signs/Symptoms: bulging, blue veins, usually in the legs Indications: Massage around vein Contraindications: do not work directly on vein; Refer to Naturopath and/or Acupuncturist for treatment of nutritional deficiencies
Warts Definition: small growths on skin Causes: viruses Signs/Symptoms: bumps on skin, singly or in clusters Indications: Massage Contraindications: Avoid direct contact with area; may be contagious
Whiplash Definition: traumatic injury to the neck most commonly associated with car accident; acceleration/deceleration Causes: rapid deceleration, injuries, trauma Signs/Symptoms: dizziness, pain in neck, muscle guarding, TMJ, inner ear disturbances, concussions Indications: Massage as per your level of training. treatment differs as to type of accident (rear end collision, head on collision or side impact collision) Contraindications: Have Physician evaluate traumatic injuries
Signs/Symptoms: itching, persistent itchy rash, dry scaly skin, highly contagious by skin to skin contact Indications: N/A Contraindications: refer to Physician for diagnosis
Sciatica Definition: inflammation of the sciatic nerve Causes: nerve root impingement caused by disc protrusion or herniation, adhesions at the nerve root, fibrosis, degenerative joint disease, piriformis syndrome, fibromyalgia Signs/Symptoms: pain in buttocks, referring down leg, low back pain, burning, tingling Indications: Massage to relieve spasm in piriformis, psoas, adductors, iliotibial band; balance pelvis, structural realignment. Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner to diagnose disc problems. Refer to appropriate health care practitioner for nutritional, diet and lifestyle changes.
Scleroderma Definition: disease of the connective tissue of the body primarily the skin, but can affect many organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, heart, lungs, kidneys; normal tissue is replaced with fibrous connective tissue. Causes: metabolism disorder of connective tissue and its ground substance, microvascular abnormalities, autoimmune system Signs/Symptoms: pain and stiffness in finger and knee joints, edema and thickening of the skin, cold or cold sensitive hands and feet, difficulty breathing, hypertension, hyperthyroid, flexion contracture, yellow or white round or oval plaques with red and blue hyperemia at the edge of them; plaques often follow the distribution of a cutaneous nerve; may have Raynaud’s phenomenon or renal disease Indications: Massage to warm skin, maintain skin elasticity, reduce pain, elicit parasympathetic response Contraindications: ROM may be limited due to tension of the skin. If breathing is difficult, may have to treat sitting up. Cold therapy and extreme heat should be avoided. Check medications. Refer to appropriate health care provider.
Link – Scleroderma Support
Schizophrenia Definition: mental illness Causes: unknown; stress, complications during birth, head injury, virus, environmental poisons, nutritional deficiencies, heredity, neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain Signs/Symptoms: disordered thinking and perception, depression, behavioral disturbances, delusions, loss of contact with reality Indications: Massage for stress reduction and removal of toxins Contraindications: Check for Medications
Scoliosis Definition: lateral curvature of the spine Causes: muscular tightness, muscular weakness, poor posture, emotional trauma, injury, degeneration of the spine, bony abnormalities, congenital Signs/Symptoms: rotation and lateral flexion of the spine accompanied with fixed rotation of the vertebrae, poor posture, muscle pain due to imbalances Indications: Massage to correct and reduce curvature, decompress structures, movement re-education Contraindications: None
Scoliosis : A Case Study of Deep Tissue Massage by Erik Dalton
Seasonal Affective Disorder Definition: depression that occurs in the winter due to shorter and darker days Causes: lack of sunlight, poor diet, stress Signs/Symptoms: loss of energy, anxiety, sleep often, reduced sex drive, weight gain due to overeating Indications: massage for stress reduction and relaxation of tense muscles Contraindications: None; refer to appropriate health care practitioner.
Sebaceous Cyst Definition: skin growth that contain a mixture of sebum (oil) and skin proteins Causes: toxins, bacterial or viral infection Signs/Symptoms: whitehead, swellings on the face, scalp and back Indications: Massage for detoxification and stress reduction Contraindications: Avoid inflamed area
Seborheic dermatitis Definition: skin disorder of the sebaceous glands (oil secreting glands) Causes: unknown; but may be nutritional deficiencies, yeast infection, stress, anxiety, oily skin, Parkinson’s disease, immune deficiencies, food allergies Signs/Symptoms: occur mainly on the scalp, face and chest, may or may not itch, scaly bumps Indications: Massage for stress reduction Contraindications: Avoid any inflamed areas
Seborrheid Keratosis ( Basal cell papilloma) Definition: benign superficial epithelial tumors Causes: nutritional deficiencies, toxin build up Signs/Symptoms: yellow to tan to brown to black lesions that are raised above the skin Indications: Massage for stress reduction Contraindications: None
Seizure – see Epilepsy
Separations (joints) Definition: separation of the joints in a side to side manner Causes: trauma, consistent overuse of joint Signs/Symptoms: pain, swelling, loss of ROM, excessive scar tissue formation around the joint during healing. Common area – Acromioclavicular; head of humerous forced into the acromion process tearing the acromioclavicular ligament. Indications: Massage for inflammation according to your level of training. Contraindications: Refer to physician for complete separations characterized by complete displacement of the joints
Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Definition: skin inflammation Causes: virus; immune deficiencies, stress, cancer Signs/Symptoms: chills, fever, achiness, blistering of skin, with excruciating pain, sensitivity to touch, numbness, depression, headache, blisters scab over and fall off Indications: N/A Contraindications: Highly contagious
Sinusitis ( acute/chronic) Definition: inflammation of the nasal sinuses Causes: excess mucus production from poor digestion, bacterial or viral production, hay fever, food allergies Signs/Symptoms: fever, cough, headache, facial pain, cranial pressure, tenderness in the forehead and cheekbones, stuffy nose, runny nose Indications: Massage for detoxification and stress reduction. Sinus pressure points in upper, medial corner of eyes, along ridge of cheekbone; cervical misalignment, TMJ, cranial misalignment. Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner.
Sjögrens Syndrome Definition: autoimmune connective tissue disorder Causes: hormonal changes, stress Signs/Symptoms: dryness of the mouth and eyes, salivary gland enlargement may be present, rheumatoid arthritis; mainly in menopausal or postmenopausal women Indications: Massage for stress reduction Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner
Skin Cancer Definition: cancer of the skin Basal cell carcinoma– most common, prevalent in fair skinned people, pearly looking bump that may bleed and never heal.
Squamous cell carcinoma– lump or tumor under the skin, appearance of a wart or small ulcerated spot that never heals, may be from overexposure to sun Malignant Melanoma-most dangerous, tumor grows from the pigment producing cells of the deeper layers of the skin; most from moles. Causes: overexposure to sun and tanning salons, environmental pollutants, destruction of the ozone layer Signs/Symptoms: skin problems that don’t heal, moles that bleed, moles that change in size and color, reddish irritated spot, smooth growth with an elevated border and indented center, shiny scar like area that is white, yellow or waxy. Indications: Massage for stress reduction and detoxification Contraindications: Lesions may be removed with cryotherapy; Use caution around these areas.
Refer to appropriate health care practitioner.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Associated with
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Daytime Sleepiness: Role of
ALEXANDROS N. VGONTZAS, RICHARD S. LEGRO, EDWARD O. BIXLER,
ALLISON GRAYEV, ANTHONY KALES, AND GEORGE P. CHROUSOS
Sleep Research and Treatment Center (A.N.V., E.O.B., A.K.), Department of Psychiatry,
Spina bifida Definition: congenital disorder of the vertebral column in which the lamina do not unite at the midline Causes: disease or sickness during pregnancy Signs/Symptoms: protrusion of the spinal cord, urinary difficulties, absence of reflexes Indications: Massage ok Contraindications:none
Sprains (see section on Muscle Strains) Definition: injury to ligaments (may also involve muscles or tendons); tears in ligaments
Causes: injury, overexertion, over stretching, unexpected movement Signs/Symptoms: pain, inflammation, bruising, swelling; gradual or sudden onset; hyper-mobile and unstable- joint, sharp pain. Common areas – ankle, knee, wrist, whiplash, joint separation or dislocation. Indications: Massage according to your level of training. Reduce inflammation, vascular flush, Trigger point to regain flexibility, movement re-education Contraindications: Traction may aggravate injury if it involves the injured ligaments. Traumatic injuries should be assessed by physician to determine severity. Naturopath and Acupuncturist to speed healing with natural anti-inflammatories.
Strabismus Definition: eye disorder in which optic axes cannot be directed to the same object Causes: lack of muscular coordination Signs/Symptoms: squinting Indications: Massage for stress reduction; eye exercises Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner; Bates vision specialist.
Strains Definition: injury to muscle or tendon; rupture or tear Causes: overexertion, over stretching, not enough rest after exertion, pushing a weak muscle beyond its abilities Signs/Symptoms: spasm, pain, swelling, loss of movement; gradual or sudden onset.
Level 1 – 1% to 50% partial tear of fibers; some loss of function, can hold against resistance with pain, swelling, muscle guarding
Level 2 – 50%-90% fiber tear; cannot hold against moderate resistance but may hold against gravity, pain, swelling, edema, muscle guarding
Level 3 – 100% tear of fibers; snap heard at time of injury, no resistance possible, may or may not have pain Indications: Massage according to your level of training. Reduce inflammation, Trigger point to regain flexibility, movement re-education Contraindications: Traumatic injuries should be assessed by physician to determine severity. 100% tear needs to be referred to physician immediately. Naturopath and Acupuncturist to speed healing with natural anti-inflammatories.
Stress Definition: any physical, mental, emotional, chemical, stimulus that interferes with the body’s natural balance Causes: nutritional deficiencies, work, holidays, family, noise, traffic, temperature, overwork, lack of sleep, illness, drug and alcohol abuse. improper breathing; increase of cortisol in body weakens immune system. Signs/Symptoms: fatigue, insomnia, muscle tension, high blood pressure, irritability, anxiety, stomach disorders, all physical, mental and emotional illnesses, sexual dysfunction, muscle aches, headaches Indications: MASSAGE Contraindications: None. Refer to appropriate health care practitioner to assist with eliminating the cause of stress and changing lifestyles.
Raynaud’s disease Definition: circulatory disease in the hands and feet with sensitivity to cold
Causes: stress, side effect of some drugs, muscle tightness and compression syndromes Signs/Symptoms: fingers deprived of oxygen turn blue or white, damage may occur to nails Indications: Massage for stress reduction and relieve any compressed areas Contraindications: Gangrene may occur in extreme cases; Refer to appropriate health care practitioner.
Web resources: Raynaud’s foundation Wayne State University
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
Definition: Sympathetic Nervous System Disorder
Causes: Trauma, injury, stress
Signs/Symptoms: burning pain, swelling, osteoporsis, skin changes, muscle spasm, joint tenderness, vasoconstriction and dilation, usually in hand or foot but can be other places, may lead to weakness and atrophy
Indications: Massage for stress reduction and relieve spasms. Check postural alignment.
Contraindications: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner
Repetitive Stress Syndrome Defintion: a combination of conditions which include tendonitis, tenosynovitis, neuralgia, and neuritis Causes: overuse, poor nutrition, stress Signs/Symptoms: burning pain, tingling, increased pain with movement, numbness, swelling, inflammation, weakness, reduced mobility, reduced motor ability Indications: Get clear diagnosis. Reduce inflammation, reduce adhesions, reduce joint stiffness and pain, minimize atrophy Contraindications: Check for steroid medications
Restless Leg Syndrome Definition: uncontrollable urge to move legs usually occurring at night Causes: Unknown; possible causes are drug reaction, brain chemistry imbalance, iron deficiency, pregnancy, neuropathy, improper diet, lack of exercise Signs/Symptoms: nocturnal leg cramping, muscle tightness, urge to move due to uncomfortable sensations, symptoms may worsen with relaxation, burning feet, fibromyalgia, sleep problems Indications: Massage to relieve tightness in legs, triggerpoint therapy, stretching program Contraindications: Relaxation may worsen condition in some cases. Refer to appropriate health care practitioner for nutritional support and treatment. Possible medications for treatment include sinemet, valium, percodan, percocet.
Links – Wemove.org
Rheumatoid Arthritis – see arthritis
Ringworm Definition: fungal infection of the skin Causes: fungus Signs/Symptoms: scaly, crusty cracking of the skin Indications: do not use oil or lotion as fungus thrive in moist areas Contraindications: No oil or lotion; Refer to appropriate health care practitioner
Rosacea Definition: chronic skin disorder of the forehead, face and chin Causes: unknown; may be related to alcohol consumption, poor digestion, dehydration, nutritional deficiencies, stress Signs/Symptoms: capillaries become dilated causing blotchy areas with pimples, skin may be sensitive to touch Indications: Massage for stress reduction and removal of toxins and to stimulate digestion Contraindications: None; Refer to appropriate health care practitioner.
Paget’s Disease Definition: disease of bones; bones are replaced with structurally deficient bone deficient in calcium and weaker than normal Causes: unknown; may be viral infection, heredity; often confused with hyperthyroidism, bone cancer; must be diagnosed with bone scans, CT scans, MRI, urine tests, and bone biopsy Signs/Symptoms: mild to moderate pain, worse with exertion, unexplained bone fractures, headaches, dizziness, ringing in the ears, impaired mobility, may cause deformities such as bowed legs, bent spine Indications: N/A; Reiki Contraindications: Massage not recommended because of the lack of structure of the bones
Pancreatitis Definition: inflammation of the pancreas; usually from an obstruction of the pancreatic duct Causes: gallstones, scarring from alcohol damage, cancerous tumor, viral infection, injury, obesity, poor nutrition, drug use Signs/Symptoms: pain around navel area and back, nausea, vomiting, abdominal swelling and distention, fever, sweating , muscle aches, digestive difficulties Indications: Massage for stress and pain reduction Contraindications: Refer to Physician: Refer to appropriate health care practitioner after stabilized for treatment
Paralysis Definition: diminished or total loss of motor function Causes: trauma, injury, nerve impingement or compression, tumors Signs/Symptoms: weakness, loss of movement, loss of muscle tone Indications: Massage for relief of impingement or compression: movement reeducation for complete paralysis Contraindications: Caution: unable to feel pain
Parkinson’s Disease Definition: degenerative disease of the nervous system Causes: unknown; related to lack of dopamine in brain, dopamine receptors blocked; chemical toxicity Sign/Symptoms: tremor of hand or hands, fatigue, muscular stiffness, muscular rigidity, shuffling gait, impaired speech, depression, dementia Indications: Massage to reduce stiffness, stress Contraindications: Medications for this disease can cause kidney, liver problems, more stiffness, discoloration of skin, nightmares, fatigue. Refer to Naturopath and Acupuncturist for detoxification and treatment
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Definition: inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissue Causes: bacteria introduced through intercourse, gonorrhea Signs/Symptoms: pelvic pain, painful abscesses of the reproductive organs, vaginal discharge, fever Indications: N/A Contraindications: Refer to Physician
Peripheral Neuropathy Definition: disturbances and/or pathological changes in the peripheral( lies outside the central nervous system) nervous system Causes: diabetic neuropathy, ischemic neuropathy, trauma Signs/Symptoms: numbness, burning, pain
Indications: Massage Ok Contraindications: Have underlying condition diagnosed by appropriate health care practitioner
Peritonitis Definition: acute inflammation of the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and covering the abdominal viscera Causes: bacterial infection, bacterial contamination from surgery or trauma Indications: N/A Contraindications: Refer to Physician as it may spread to other organs
Phlebitis Definition: inflammation of a vein Causes: blood clot, trauma, weakening of the vein due to aging Signs/Symptoms: edema, stiffness, pain, red streak in vein; often found in leg Indications:N/A Contraindications: Refer to Physician
Pneumonia Definition: serious infection of the lungs Causes: viral, bacterial, fungi, protozoa, upper respiratory infection, immune deficiency Signs/Symptoms: fever, shortness of breath, wheezing, chills, sore throat, muscle aches, enlarged lymph nodes Indications: Massage at your own risk; may be contagious. Massage for stress reduction Contraindications: Refer to Physician if symptoms worsen or persist.
Poliomyelitis (Polio) Definition: infection of the central nervous system Causes: viral Signs/Symptoms: fever, headache, stiff neck and back, deep muscle pain, weakness, loss of somatic reflexes, paralysis, difficulty swallowing, breathing and speaking, lower body paralysis, Indications: Massage ok Contraindications: None. Some one with childhood polio can have symptoms later in life. Caution advised when working with infant who just had polio vaccine as virus may be transmitted in bodily fluids.
Massage therapy decreased the anxiety, depression and stress hormone levels (cortisol) of children who had post-traumatic stress disorder following Hurricane Andrew. In addition, their drawings became less depressed.
Field, T., Seligman, S., Scafidi, F., & Schanberg, S. (1996). Alleviating postraumatic stress in children following Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 17, 37-50.
Postural Deviations (Lordosis, Kyphosis, scoliosis) Definition: structural abnormalities Causes: due to weakness, tightness Signs/Symptoms: poor posture Indications: Massage for realignment, postural re-education Contraindications: None
Pregnancy Definition: time between conception and birth Signs/Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, fatigue Indications: see section on Pregnancy Massage Guidelines Contraindications: See section on Pregnancy Massage Guidelines
Pleurisy Definition: inflammation of the pleural membrane Causes: from surgical procedure, persistent coughing, trauma Signs/Symptoms: pain at sides of ribs, pain with breathing Indications: Massage to relieve pain, intercostal work; breathing exercises Contraindications: Caution if from trauma
Premenstrual Syndrome Definition: disorder in women before menstruation Causes: hormonal fluctuations and imbalances, poor diet consisting of sugar and processed foods, food allergies, hypoglycemia, malabsorption Signs/Symptoms: abdominal bloating, fatigue, cramps, headaches, insomnia, joint pain, mood swings, depression
Indications: Massage for stress reduction, headache relief, removal of toxins, reduce tension Contraindications: touch sensitivity may be heighten during this time, also may be more easily
bruised. Refer to appropriate health care practitioner. Nutrition and diet need to be addressed.
Psoriasis Definition: skin disease Causes: heredity, trauma, infections, seasonal, stress, illness, viral or bacterial infection, overuse of drugs or alcohol, reaction to medications, faulty utilization of fat, weakened immune system, build up of toxins in colon Signs/Symptoms: silvery scales or red area on skin, ridges on nails, itching Indications: Massage for detoxification and stress reduction Contraindications: Avoid infected area; Refer to Naturopath and Acupuncturist for detoxification, diet modification and treatment