Anatomy terminology

Anatomy – The study of the structure of the body and the relationships between the structures.

Physiology – Study of the function of the body parts

Pathology – Structural and functional changes associated with diseases.

  • Etiology – Etio =cause. Study of the cause of disease
  • Sign – Objective evidence of disease that can be observed or measured.
  • Symptom – Subjective change in body function not apparent to an observer and can’t be measured.
  • Treatment – the management and care of a patient or client

Levels of Structural Organization

    1. Atoms: ex.Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    2. Chemicals: ex. – proteins, carbohydrates, fats and vitamins
    3. Cellular – basic structural and functional units of an organism

-cell membrane – 2 layers of lipid molecules with proteins and carbohydrates that regulates what can enter and leave the cell
– Cytoplasm – fills the cell and holds the organelles
-Nucleus – control center with specific genetic material
– Nucleolus – little nucleus, manufactures proteins and replicates genetic material.
– Mitochondria – makes ATP energy from glucose
– Gogi Body – carbohydrate and lipid synthesis
– Ribosome – manufactures proteins

  1. Tissue – A group of similar cells that together with their intercellular material have similar origin in the embryo and perform a specific function.
    – Epithelial – form glands, covers body, lines cavities, secretes fluids
    – Connective – supports and forms framework of the body, hard is cartilage/bone, soft – adipose, liquid – blood, lymph
    – Muscular – contracts and produces movement
    – Nervous – conducts nerve impulses
  2. Organs – structures that are composed of two or more different tissues and have specific functions and usually have a recognizable shape like the heart, liver, spleen
  3. System – related organs that have a common function like the digestive system that is comprised of the mouth, esophagus, stomach etc
  4. (Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Cardiovascular, Digestive, Respiratory, Endocrine, Integumentary, Urinary, Reproductive)
  5. Organism – One whole living being

Anatomical Position – erect, palms forward, feet flat on the floor, arms at the side.

Prone – lying horizontal, face down
Supine- lying horizontal, face up
Superior- above or in a higher position
Inferior- below or lower position
Anterior – ventral – front
Posterior – dorsal – back
Cranial – near the head
Caudal – near the sacral region of spinal column
Medial – toward midline of the body
Lateral – away from the midline towards the side
Proximal – nearest the origin of a structure
Distal – farthest away from a region
Superficial – towards surface
Deep – Internal

Planes of the body

Midsagittal – Vertical Plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides. A Midsaggital plane passes through the midline.
Frontal – (coronal) divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior (front and back)
Horizontal or Transverse – divides the body or organ into superiour and inferior
Oblique – divides the body or organ at an angle