Swedish Massage Strokes

Stroke
Purpose/Uses
Mechanical effect Reflexive effect Contraindications
LIGHT EFFLEURAGE

Gliding, Fanning, Tree branching,
shingling etc.
  • Transitioning
  • Spreading oil
  • Evaluating tissue
  •  Relaxes muscles (parasympathetic
    nervous system)
  • Relieves pain (Gate control theory,
    endorphins)
  •  Increases arterial and
    capillary circulation
  •  Increases vasodilation
    (slowing heart rate and blood pressure)
  •  Hyperesthesia
  •  Marked or pitted edema
  •  Gross swelling
  • Open wounds
  • distal to inflammation or infection
DEEP EFFLEURAGE

Knuckling,
  •  Increases venous and lymphatic
    flow removing wastes, reducing edema
  •  Improves nutritional status
    of tissues
  •  Increases arterial and
    capillary circulation, bringing nutrients
  •  Warms superficial tissue
  •  Desquamation of dead skin
Same as above

  •  Deeper muscle relaxation
  •  Capillary dilation longer
    lasting
  •  

  •  Same as light effleurage
  •  Very hairy skin
  •  New scar tissue
  •  Venous stasis
PETRISSAGE

Picking up, wringing, kneading,
open C/closed C, alternating thumb, squeezing, lifting, skin rolling (lifting
tissue away from underlying structures)
  • Used after effleurage
  •  Relieves congestion
  •  Reduces swelling
  •  Digestive disorders 
  •  Muscle shortening 
  •  Spastic paralysis
  •  Fatigue
  •  

  •  Stretches muscle fibers
    and stimulates muscle tone, broadens fibers
  •  Breaks up adhesions
  •  Increased circulation
    and waste elimination
  •  Moves interstitial fluid
  •  Slow-relaxes nervous system
  •  Fast-stimulates NS
  •  Increases glandular activity
    of skin
  •  Increases peristalsis 
    when done over abdomen
  •  Affects proprioception
  •  Atrophied muscles
  •  Flaccid paralysis
  •  Acute inflammation
DIRECT PRESSURE FRICTION

Compression
  • Use after tissues have been
    warmed up
  •  Hypertonic muscles
  •  Treatment massage
  •  Deep tissue work
  •  Compresses and spreads
    tissue
  •  Temporary ischemia
  •  Mobilizes muscle/tendon
    junction
  •  Reduces pain and spasm
  •  Hyperemia
  •  Increases peristalsis
    when done over abdomen
  •  

For all frictions:

  •  Acute inflammations
  •  Neuritis
  •  Recent injuries
  •  Osteo and rheumatoid arthritis-especially
    acute stages
  •  Muscles lacking innervation(paralysis)
  •  Debilitating neuromuscular
    dysfunction such as MS, ALS, MD.
LINEAR OR CIRCULAR FRICTION same as above
  •  Myofascial releasing-separating
    adhered fascial planes
  •  Broadens and stretches
    muscle fibers
  •  Increases muscle 
  •  Decreases tension through
    stimulating Golgi tendon reflex
  • Increases circulation
  • Creates hyperemia
Cross fiber friction
  •  Use only after a thorough
    warming of involved tissue
  • Apply at right angles to scar/fibrotic
    tissue
  •  Superficial tissue must     
    move over underlying structure
  •  Apply frequently enough
    to have an impact
  •  Breaks up adhesions
  •  Assists in realigning
    scar tissue
  •  

  •  Relaxes muscles by stimulating
    Golgi tendon reflex
Heat rub friction
  •  Heats skin
  •  Warms tissue
  •  Vasodilatation
  •  Relaxes muscles
TAPOTEMENT

Tapping, Pincement, Slapping
Hacking, Cupping, Beating, Pounding
  •  Stimulation of tired muscles
  •  Relaxation of hypertonic
    muscles
 Loosens mucus in thoracic
cavity
  •  Stimulates nervous system,
    muscles, vessels
  •  Enhances muscle tone via
    contract-relax response
  •  Increases circulation
  •  Stimulates organs through
    low back
  •  Increases gaseous exchange
  •  Stimulates skin and glandular
    activity
  •  Muscles is spasm or cramping
  •  Spastic paralysis
  •  Atrophied muscles
  •  Flaccid paralysis
  •  Insomnia, neurasthenia
    or complete exhaustion
  •  Neuritis or painful conditions
  •  Over bony area
  •  No heavy tapotement over
    the kidneys
  •  No heavy tapotement over
    low back in pregnancy or menstruation
FINE VIBRATION

Static or moving
Relaxation
  •  sedates nervous system
  •  reduces pain(gate theory)
  •  relaxes muscle 
same as tapotement
COARSE VIBRATION

Static or moving
loosens ligaments  Penetrating stimulation
JOSTLING/SHAKING
  •  Increases synovial activity
  •  Increases circulation
  •  Stimulates organs
  •  Reduces muscle guarding
  •  Rejuvenating  tired
    muscles
same as tapotement
SWEDISH GYMNASTICS

Active free, active assisted,
passive, resistive
  • Stretches muscles and ligaments
  •  Increases circulation
    and nutrition
  •  Increases waste elimination
  •  Loosens adhesions
  •  Increases ROM and flexibility
  •  Stimulates NS
  •  Increases blood pressure
    and temperature
  •  Torn ligament, tendon
    or muscle
  •  Unhealed fracture
  •  Post surgery
  •  Heart conditions 
  • ( active and resistive)

  •  Acute injuries
  •  

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