Muscles of the Head and Neck – Chart

Muscles of the Head and Neck – Chart  for Massage Therapists

Neck
Origin
Insertion
Action
Notes
Sternocleidomastoid
Manubrium of sternum, medial 1/3 of clavicle Mastoid processes 
of temporal bone
Unilaterally- Lateral flexion to same side and rotation to opposite sideBilaterally- flexion of head and neck Laying prone -Turn head to side and have client lift head toward ceiling; SCM’s will pop out
Platysma                              Fascia covering superior part of pectoralis major and deltoid Edge of mandible, 
skin of lower part 
of face               
Assists in depressing mandible and tightens the fascia of neck depresses lower lip.
Scalenes-anterior , medius, posterior Anterior- transverse processes C3-C6Middle- transverse processes of C2-C7

Posterior- Transverse processes of C5-C7

Anterior- first ribMiddle- first rib

Posterior- second rib

Bilaterally – elevate ribs during inhalationUnilaterally- with rib fixed, laterally flexes the neck, rotates head and neck to opposite side

Anterior- flexes the neck

Brachial plexus and subclavian artery pass between the middle and anterior scalene.
Longissumus Capitis C3-C6 transverse processses Base of occipital bone Flexion of head
Splenius capitis Spinous processes of C7-T3 Mastoid process of
temporal bone and 
superior nuchal 
line of occiput
Bilaterally- extends neck and headUnilaterally- rotates the head to the same side Palpate between trapezius and SCM above levator scapula.Wrap around deeper neck muscles.
Splenius cervicis Spinous processes of T3-T6 Transverse processes 
of C1-C4
Bilaterally-extends neckUnilaterally- Rotates head to same side
Suprahyoids Styloid process, underside of mandible Hyoid bone Elevate hyoid and tongue, depress mandible Important in chewing, swallowing and speaking.
Infrahyoids Manubrium, superior border of scapula Hyoid bone,
thyroid cartilage
Depresses (pulls downward) hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage
Head
Sub occipital muscles
Occipitofrontalis Galea aponeurotica (broad sheath of connective tissue that stretches across the cranium)Skin over eyebrows

Superior nuchal line of occiput

Galea aponeuroticaSkin over eyebrows

Superior nuchal l
ine of occiput

Raises eyebrows and wrinkles foreheadAnchors and retracts the galea posteriorly Creates expression of “Surprise”
Temporalis Lateral surface of the temporal bone (temporal fossa and temporal fascia) Mandible (coronoid 
process and ramus)
Elevates and retracts mandible; Clenches teeth Active in TMJ problems, tooth grinding and headaches
Masseter Zygomatic arch Ramus and angle
of mandible
Elevates mandible in chewing,Closes jaw and assists in protraction. Clenches teeth. Strongest muscle in proportion to its size.
Buccinator Maxilla, mandible Lips Maintains cheeks near teeth and food in position for chewing
Pterygoids –lateral Upper head: from infratemporal surfce of greater wing of sphenoidLower head: from lateral surface of lateral ptergoid plate Front of neck 
of mandibular 
condyle and
capsule of
mandibular joint
Protrudes mandible, pulls articular disc forward, assists in rotary motion while chewing. Active in TMJ, tooth grinding and headaches
Pterygoids- medial Medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate and pyramidal process of palatine bone, small slip from tuberosity of maxilla Lower and back
part of medial 
surface of ramus
and angle of mandible
Protracts and elevates lower jaw, assists in rotary motion while chewing. Active in TMJ, tooth grinding and headaches.
Orbicularis oculi Medial portions of orbit Skin of eyelids Closes the eye
Orbicularis oris Maxilla, mandible, lips, buccinatior Mucous membranes, 
muscles inserting 
into lips
Closes lips

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